Tag Archive: TGT

Jan 01

Attack Methods for Gaining Domain Admin Rights in Active Directory

There are many ways an attacker can gain Domain Admin rights in Active Directory. This post is meant to describe some of the more popular ones in current use. The techniques described here “assume breach” where an attacker already has a foothold on an internal system and has gained domain user credentials (aka post-exploitation). The …

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Dec 31

Cracking Kerberos TGS Tickets Using Kerberoast – Exploiting Kerberos to Compromise the Active Directory Domain

Microsoft’s Kerberos implementation in Active Directory has been targeted over the past couple of years by security researchers and attackers alike. The issues are primarily related to the legacy support in Kerberos when Active Directory was released in the year 2000 with Windows Server 2000. This legacy support is enabled when using Kerberos RC4 encryption …

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Nov 17

How Attackers Use Kerberos Silver Tickets to Exploit Systems

Usually Golden Tickets (forged Kerberos TGTs) get all the press, but this post is about Silver Tickets and how attackers use them to exploit systems. I have talked about how Silver Tickets can be used to persist and even re-exploit an Active Directory enterprise in presentations at security conferences this year. This post continues this …

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Aug 13

Active Directory Security Risk #101: Kerberos Unconstrained Delegation (or How Compromise of a Single Server Can Compromise the Domain)

At Black Hat USA 2015 this summer (2015), I spoke about the danger in having Kerberos Unconstrained Delegation configured in the environment. When Active Directory was first released with Windows 2000 Server, Microsoft had to provide a simple mechanism to support scenarios where a user authenticates to a Web Server via Kerberos and needs to …

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Aug 07

Kerberos Golden Tickets are Now More Golden

At my talk at Black Hat USA 2015, I highlighted new Golden Ticket capability in Mimikatz (“Enhanced Golden Tickets”). This post provides additional detailed on “enhanced” Golden Tickets. Over the past few months, I researched how SID History can be abused in modern enterprises. As part of this research, I reached out to Benjamin Delpy, …

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Jul 15

It’s All About Trust – Forging Kerberos Trust Tickets to Spoof Access across Active Directory Trusts

In early 2015, I theorized that it’s possible to forge inter-realm (inter-trust) Kerberos tickets in a similar manner to how intra-domain TGTs (Golden Tickets) and TGSs (Silver Tickets) are forged. Around the same time, Benjamin Delpy updated Mimikatz to dump trust keys from a Domain Controller. Soon after, Mimikatz gained capability to forge inter-realm trust …

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