November 2014 archive

BlueHat Security Briefings: Fall 2014 Sesions

Microsoft has posted videos and slides from the Microsoft internal “BlueHat” security conference from October 2014. BlueHat Security Briefings educate Microsoft engineers and executives on current and emerging security threats as part of continuing efforts to help protect our customers and secure our products, devices, and services. BlueHat serves as a great opportunity for invited …

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Microsoft Consolidated Technology Conference: Microsoft Ignite

Microsoft announced over the Summer they are merging the individual technology conferences such as the SharePoint Conference, Exchange Conference, and TechEd into a single unified technology conference. Details are finally available for the Microsoft Ignite Conference which promises to be the conference to attend if you are interested in Microsoft technology solutions. Who is Ignite …

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Mimikatz and Active Directory Kerberos Attacks

NOTE: While this page will remain, the majority of the Mimikatz information in this page is now in the “Unofficial Mimikatz Guide & Command Reference” which will be updated on a regular basis. Mimikatz is the latest, and one of the best, tool to gather credential data from Windows systems. In fact I consider Mimikatz …

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MS14-068: Active Directory Kerberos Vulnerability Patch for Invalid Checksum

MS14-068 References: AD Kerberos Privilege Elevation Vulnerability: The Issue Detailed Explanation of MS14-068 MS14-068 Exploit POC with the Python Kerberos Exploitation Kit (aka PyKEK) Exploiting MS14-068 Vulnerable Domain Controllers Successfully with the Python Kerberos Exploitation Kit (PyKEK) PyKEK Kerberos Packets on the Wire aka How the MS14-068 Exploit Works   The folks at BeyondTrust have …

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Kerberos Vulnerability in MS14-068 (KB3011780) Explained

Thanks to Gavin Millard (@gmillard on Twitter), we have a graphic that covers the issue quite nicely (wish I had of thought of it!) Exploit Code is now on the net! As of December 4th, 2014, there is Proof of Concept (POC) code posted that exploits MS14-068 by Sylvain Monné by using Python to interact with …

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MS14-068: Vulnerability in (Active Directory) Kerberos Could Allow Elevation of Privilege

Active Directory leverages the Kerberos protocol for authentication. The vulnerability patches an issue with how the Domain Controller validates group membership in Kerberos tickets (hint: the ticket is always validated by the DC if the checksum is set to certain values). Microsoft KB3011780 patches this issue. According to Microsoft: “When this security bulletin was issued, …

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PowerShell: Discover Active Directory Forest Domain Controllers

Recently I needed to find all Domain Controllers in a large Active Directory forest (and see the AD Domain Functional Level for each domain). Here’s the PowerShell code which leverages the Active Directory PowerShell module cmdlets.   import-module ActiveDirectory $ADForestInfo = Get-ADForest $ADForestInfoName = $ADForestInfo.Name $ADForestInfoDomains = $ADForestInfo.Domains $ADForestInfoForestMode = $ADForestInfo.ForestMode $AllDCs = $Null ForEach …

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PowerShell Encoding & Decoding (Base64)

PowerShell provides an easy method for Base64 encoding and decoding. Encoding: $Text = ‘This is a secret and should be hidden’ $Bytes = [System.Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetBytes($Text) $EncodedText =[Convert]::ToBase64String($Bytes) $EncodedText The result is this base64 encoded text: VABoAGkAcwAgAGkAcwAgAGEAIABzAGUAYwByAGUAdAAgAGEAbgBkACAAcwBoAG8AdQBsAGQAIABiAGUAIABoAGkAZABlAG4A Decoding: Decoding the base64 encoded blob using PowerShell is simple. $EncodedText = “VABoAGkAcwAgAGkAcwAgAGEAIABzAGUAYwByAGUAdAAgAGEAbgBkACAAcwBoAG8AdQBsAGQAIABiAGUAIABoAGkAZABlAG4A” $DecodedText = [System.Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([System.Convert]::FromBase64String($EncodedText)) $DecodedText    

PowerShell: Find All Users in Active Directory the Optimal Way

Today I Learned (TIL) that the best way to find all users in Active Directory via LDAP query is to search for: (samAccountType=805306368) and NOT: (&(objectClass=user)(objectCategory=person)) Reference: