Category: PowerShell

PowerShell Security: PowerShell Attack Tools, Mitigation, & Detection

This post is a follow-up of sorts from my earlier posts on PowerShell, my PowerShell presentation at BSides Baltimore, and my presentation at DEF CON 24. Hopefully this post provides current information on PowerShell usage for both Blue and Red teams. Related posts: BSides Charm Presentation Posted: PowerShell Security: Defending the Enterprise from the Latest …

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BSides Charm Presentation Posted: PowerShell Security: Defending the Enterprise from the Latest Attack Platform

This was my second year speaking at BSides Charm in Baltimore. Last year I spoke about Active Directory attack & defense and it was my first time speaking at a conference. 🙂 The presentation slides for my talk “PowerShell Security: Defending the Enterprise from the Latest Attack Platform” are now on the Presentations tab here …

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Detecting Offensive PowerShell Attack Tools

At DerbyCon V (2015), I presented on Active Directory Attack & Defense and part of this included how to detect & defend against PowerShell attacks. Update: I presented at BSides Charm (Baltimore) on PowerShell attack & defense in April 2016. More information on PowerShell Security: PowerShell Security: PowerShell Attack Tools, Mitigation, & Detection The most …

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PowerShell Version 5 Security Enhancements

PowerShell version 5 is RTM (As of 12/18/2015). Prior to this there was a “production preview” available since August which means it was supported, but not final. With the final release of PowerShell v5 now available, I highly recommend you download PowerShell v5 and start testing to prepare for production deployment. While the PowerShell v5 …

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PowerShell Security: Execution Policy is Not An Effective Security Strategy – How to Bypass the PowerShell Execution Policy

If you have worked with PowerShell recently, you may have run into an Execution Policy message: c:\temp\Find-PSServiceAccounts.ps1 : File C:\temp\Find-PSServiceAccounts.ps1 cannot be loaded because running scripts is disabled on this system. For more information, see about_Execution_Policies at At line:1 char:1 + c:\temp\Find-PSServiceAccounts.ps1 + ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ + CategoryInfo          : SecurityError: (:) [], PSSecurityException + FullyQualifiedErrorId : …

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Windows Computer Primary Group IDs

Primary Group IDs are the RIDs for the Domain groups. The full list is here: Interesting Windows Computer & Active Directory Well-Known Security Identifiers (SIDs). 515 – Domain Computers 516 – Domain Controllers (writable) 521 – Domain Controllers (Read-Only) This information helps filter computer objects to return only the desired computer type. Domain Computers (Workstation …

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PowerShell: Discover Active Directory Forest Domain Controllers

Recently I needed to find all Domain Controllers in a large Active Directory forest (and see the AD Domain Functional Level for each domain). Here’s the PowerShell code which leverages the Active Directory PowerShell module cmdlets.   import-module ActiveDirectory $ADForestInfo = Get-ADForest $ADForestInfoName = $ADForestInfo.Name $ADForestInfoDomains = $ADForestInfo.Domains $ADForestInfoForestMode = $ADForestInfo.ForestMode $AllDCs = $Null ForEach …

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PowerShell Encoding & Decoding (Base64)

PowerShell provides an easy method for Base64 encoding and decoding. Encoding: $Text = ‘This is a secret and should be hidden’ $Bytes = [System.Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetBytes($Text) $EncodedText =[Convert]::ToBase64String($Bytes) $EncodedText The result is this base64 encoded text: VABoAGkAcwAgAGkAcwAgAGEAIABzAGUAYwByAGUAdAAgAGEAbgBkACAAcwBoAG8AdQBsAGQAIABiAGUAIABoAGkAZABlAG4A Decoding: Decoding the base64 encoded blob using PowerShell is simple. $EncodedText = “VABoAGkAcwAgAGkAcwAgAGEAIABzAGUAYwByAGUAdAAgAGEAbgBkACAAcwBoAG8AdQBsAGQAIABiAGUAIABoAGkAZABlAG4A” $DecodedText = [System.Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString([System.Convert]::FromBase64String($EncodedText)) $DecodedText    

PowerShell: Find All Users in Active Directory the Optimal Way

Today I Learned (TIL) that the best way to find all users in Active Directory via LDAP query is to search for: (samAccountType=805306368) and NOT: (&(objectClass=user)(objectCategory=person)) Reference: