Tag Archive: Configuration

Nov 15

Active Directory Replication Overview & USN Rollback: What It Is & How It Happens

If you have experienced event id #2095, then you understand how a USN Rollback can negatively affect AD consistency. What is a USN? The USN (Update Sequence Number) is an Active Directory database instance counter that increments every time a single change is committed to the AD database on a Domain Controller. The USN is …

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Nov 01

Active Directory Domain Trusts & Trust Password Management

Recently a customer asked me about Active Directory Domain Trusts and how the passwords were managed. I replied with some educated guesses based on how AD manages a variety of passwords. After stating how I thought it worked (and mentioned that I wasn’t sure), I decided to look it up. I was mostly correct. Every …

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Sep 12

Kerberos, Active Directory’s Secret Decoder Ring

Kerberos Overview Kerberos is a protocol with roots in MIT named after the three-headed dog, Cerberus. Named because there are 3 parties: the client, the resource server, and a 3rd party (the Key Distribution Center, KDC). Kerberos can be a difficult authentication protocol to describe, so I will attempt to simplify it as best as …

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Feb 13

Microsoft Key Management Server (KMS) Details

KMS Introduction The Microsoft Key Management Server (KMS) is part of the Microsoft Volume Activation 2.0 solution managing Windows OS activation keys and performs activation for supported clients automatically. Starting with Windows Server 2008 & Windows Vista, Microsoft switched to an online activation system where every Windows OS requires activation.  KMS shifts the activation requirement …

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